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Coronavirus Overview

An up to date overview of Covid19.


Coronavirus Overview

There is a large amount of false information floating around the internet and even from prominent politicians such as to ingest disinfectant. So we must get the most up to date and correct information available. That is why it is so great that PubMed has allowed all articles about the Coronavirus to be available for free.

When and where did the Coronavirus originate?

Covid-19 started in Wuhan City in China on the 19th of December 2019 (Adhikari et al., 2020); however, it was predicted back in March 2019. By the 13th of January 2020, Thailand reported its first case- this was the first recorded case outside of China. On the 29th of January, the UK registered its first case in York. By the 30th of January 2020, the World Health Organisation declared a global emergency. (WHO Timeline - COVID-19, 2020)

What is Covid19?

Covid-19 it is caused by SARS-CoV-2, which is a member of the betacoronavirus family and is related to SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome). Covid19 has been genome sequenced, and it is shown to have a similar genome sequence to the SARS virus, which caused the 2003 outbreak. It affects the lower respiratory tract, which is essential in oxygen transport in red blood cells.

Method of transmission

Covid19 is transmitted by direct human-human contact and indirect such as airborne respiratory droplets and by touching contaminated objects. At the moment, an animals-human transmission has not yet been proven or disproven. (Lotfi, Hamblin and Rezaei, 2020)

Currently, there is no indication that Covid19 can infect the foetus through the uterine lining. However, it can not be ruled out. (Chen et al., 2020)Also, pregnant women tend to have more severe symptoms. There has been evidence to indicate there may also be transferred by the oral-faecal route. (Gu, Han and Wang, 2020)



  • dry cough
  • fever
  • bilateral lung infiltrates on imaging
  • loss of taste 
  • Change in smell
  • Chills
  • Body aches
  • Sore throat 
  • Other symptoms have been reported by sufferers but have not been officially recognised. 
  • GI upsets 
  • Skin rashes

If you have any of the following symptoms, you should seek medical treatment immediately.

  • Blueish lips/face 
  • Dyspnea 
  • New confusion 
  • Pressure on the chest 
  • Pain on the chest 


Unfortunately, at present, there is no vaccine or effective treatment against the virus, but scientists around the globe are desperately working towards developing one. (Sohrabi et al., 2020) However, what we do know is that mild symptoms such as fever and body aches can be treated with paracetamol. The persistent dry cough can be treated with OTC cough syrup which contains guaifenesin. These mild symptoms can be treated at home, but more severe symptoms such as trouble breathing need to be treated at the hospital with oxygen therapy. Other treatments are given depending on what symptoms the virus has caused.


Using masks, especially on public transport, may help prevent transmission. However, for people who have respiratory issues, it is best not to wear masks as it may make breathing difficult. Washing your hands for at least 20 seconds using antibacterial soap and using antibacterial gel with at least 60% alcohol content is effective to kill microorganisms on your hands. It is essential to do this whenever you return home from going out or before entering your car. Furthermore, disinfecting all products when you get back from the grocery store or any mail. It is also essential that when you are out, you do not touch your face as this is the main ways the virus can enter your body. If you show symptoms such as a persistent dry cough, fever and/or loss or change in taste or smell, you need to self-isolate for 7 days. If you live with someone who shows these symptoms, you will need to self isolate for 14 days.

For the vulnerable, it is best to stay home at all times to minimise the risk.

In conclusion 

In conclusion, scientists still have a lot to learn about this virus. So the most important thing that we can do is to take preventative methods and be kind to each other in order to protect ourselves and the essential workers.





Gu, J., Han, B. and Wang, J., 2020. COVID-19: Gastrointestinal Manifestations and Potential Fecal–Oral Transmission. Gastroenterology, [online] 158(6), pp.1518-1519. Available at: <https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32142785/?from_term=transmission+covid19&from_pos=4> [Accessed 25 May 2020].


Adhikari, S., Meng, S., Wu, Y., Mao, Y., Ye, R., Wang, Q., Sun, C., Sylvia, S., Rozelle, S., Raat, H. and Zhou, H., 2020. Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, [online] 9(1). Available at: <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7079521/> [Accessed the 1st of June 2020].

Lotfi, M., Hamblin, M. and Rezaei, N., 2020. COVID-19: Transmission, prevention, and potential therapeutic opportunities. Clinica Chimica Acta, [online] 508, pp.254-266. Available at: <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256510/> [Accessed 25 May 2020].

Sohrabi, C., Alsafi, Z., O'Neill, N., Khan, M., Kerwan, A., Al-Jabir, A., Iosifidis, C. and Agha, R., 2020. World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). International Journal of Surgery, [online] 76, pp.71-76. Available at: <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7105032/> [Accessed the 1st of June 2020].

Chen, H., Guo, J., Wang, C., Luo, F., Yu, X., Zhang, W., Li, J., Zhao, D., Xu, D., Gong, Q., Liao, J., Yang, H., Hou, W. and Zhang, Y., 2020. Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. The Lancet, [online] 395(10226), pp.809-815. Available at: <https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30360-3/fulltext> [Accessed 1 June 2020].

Who.int. 2020. WHO Timeline - COVID-19. [online] Available at: <https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/27-04-2020-who-timeline---covid-19#:~:text=Officials%20confirm%20a%20case%20of,case%20outside%20of%20China> [Accessed 1 June 2020].

All information was up to date at the time of writing.

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